Jerusalem


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Mt. Sinai

Including Judaism, there was a sanctuary of 3 large religions of Christianity and Islam in Jerusalem, from former times, and it became the stage of the various Bible stories, it became cause of dispute. The Judean history before about approximately 4000 years, starts from Abraham of the patriarch, Isaac of that child, by Jacob of that child. It is written concerning the experience of Abraham encountering the only God in The Old Testament. According to The Old Testament, God promised Abraham, that his descendants multiply and increase as the number of stars in the sky, to the area of The Promised Land. Later, when in Jacob era, famine happens to the country, and Jacob (Israel) with, that whole group came to the point of going down to Egypt, but in Egypt, it became the body of the slave and 400 years, led straw raincoat life painfully, finally, the Moshe appeared, show various occurrences of miracles before the Egyptian, took Israeli across the sea opened for Israeli. He led Israeli to Mt. Sinai, the mountain of God, and made Israeli to receive ten commandments, but the after that, the Israeli came to the point of wandering around the wilderness over 40 years. But, After postmortem of Moshe, finally, Joshua led Israeli into the promised land.


After this, Israeli, in the reign of King David and King Solomon, enters zenith age, King David decided Jerusalem as the capital city, standardizes 12 tribes of Israel to one kingdom, in addition, it is that child, King Solomon in that reign, achieved the construction of the magnificent sanctuary dedicated for God of Israel. After that, observed Israel separating to Israel kingdom and Judea kingdom, Israel kingdom was ruined by Assyria. Next, B.C. 586 year, Judea kingdom with the Jerusalem sanctuary in that capital city too was destroyed by the new Babylonian Nebuchadnez'zar and the Judean people were made the Babylon prisoners. But, after approximately 50 years from the fall of Judea kingdom, Cross, the Persian king declared the Liberation of the Judean people, and permitted the return to Jerusalem in order to restore the sanctuary. After this, Jerusalem was placed under control of Persia and Greece during the period from B.C.538 year to B.C.142 card116.jpeg(394144 ޲)

present Jerusalem



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Jesus Christ

From B.C.142 to B.C.63, autonomy of politics and religion was recovered under Hasmonaean Rule, but B.C. 63 to A.D. 313, Rome, controlled this area and in B.C. 37 Herod was appointed as Judean king by Rome, Jesus Christ was born in the era of Herod. While Jesus being born in Bethlehem, propagated from at the age of 30 years, for 3 years, concerning the land of coming God and conveying the Words of God, healing the people and the poor people of the sickness, helping, conveyed the message over the Judean area. Finally at Jerusalem, as an atonement of crime of mankind, Jesus accepted to be crucified on the cruciform rack, on the respect of glory of God at the hill called Gol'gotha. After this, the period of The New Testament began and through meeting with relived Jesus after the resurrection, the disciples are filled with the spirit of Jesus and conveyed new message even to Rome. Thus, apostle line transmission age started. The disciples conveyed the Christianity, from Jerusalem to Rome, and the Christianity became base of medieval European Culture. Christianity was conveyed to the Vatican of today and Rome by hands of Peter and Paul and the images of Peter and Paul are found at Vatican today. In Jerusalem, the Via Dolorosa that is the road, Jesus walked shouldering the cruciform rack and even today many places are retained as holy place. In addition, Herod did the large repair of the sanctuary in these times, but at A.D.70, Jerusalem and that sanctuary, were destroyed completely by the Roman troop who was directed by Titos. The Jerusalem west wall (the wall of tearing), a portion of the rampart of the sanctuary of these ages presently, is the Judean holy place where they dedicate their prayers. After this, the incidents like Roman emperor Constantine, accepted Christianity and the establishment of Byzantine Empire made Jerusalem under the control of Christians.


But, at the era around A.D.610, Islam occurred at Saudi Arabia, the Arabians started having power, postmortem of the founder and the Mohamed, the Arabians conquered Jerusalem, then controlled up to A.D.1099. At A.D. 638, the Omal of the 2nd generation caliph entered into Jerusalem. In addition, in A.D.691, the Umayyad caliph, Abud Almalik, built the dome of the rock in Jerusalem. The enormous stone was placed on the center inside this dome, there is a legend that the prophet Mohamed, passed away from this place. In addition, it is said at this place, the founder of the Judaism, Abraham was requested to lift up Isaac of his child with the revelation of God and his faith was tried. But in the era A.D.1099 to around A.D.1291, Crusader troops surged to recapture Jerusalem from the pagan. They came from the European every place. July of 1099, the primary cruciform troop attacked at the city, encircling Jerusalem built Latin kingdom and they killed most of the non-Christ follower who has lived there. But 1187 years, Saladin of the Kurd tore the crusader troop, gave the right and the like to reside in Jerusalem to the Judean people as well, but it was recaptured by Crusaders after postmortem of Saladin. After that, A.D.1291 year to A.D.1516, Jerusalem was controlled in Mohammedan's Mamluke, then from A.D.1517 year to A.D.1917 was controlled under Osman Turkey. saladin.jpg(30036 ޲)
Saladin




The Palestinian problem


After the era it was prompt, the Judean people were attacked their homeland by the Roman troop and was chased from Palestine, became the people of dispersion, spread to Europe, Asia, Africa and the American continent. The Judean people, the culture and from difference of the religious background, often, experienced persecution in the settlement, but even ahead vagrancy, they did not forget God and "the promised land where flows the milk and the honey". After long centuries passed and in the 19th century, Zionism movement occurred as such the Judean people again returning to the Palestine land and constructing their own country. In 19 17, the English foreign minister Balfour, notified to the Rothschild, the leader of the English Judean leader, the document promising the support of the English government for Zionism movement, and which is known as Balfour declaration. The land of Palestine, was under the control of The Osman Empire for the period of 4 centuries but after world war 1, it became English trust territory, and it became the place many Judean people started immigration. Here, between the Arabian people who had lived for a long time in Palestine and the newly Judean immigrated people, friction occurred, and this friction grew and developed as the Palestinian problem.
England, during world war 1, in order to fight against Turkey, needed the help of the Judean people, as did Balfour declaration, and for the Judean people, promised the scheme they can construct their own country and the Palestine immigration by the Judean people, started on the basis of this promise, meanwhile, England, simultaneously, in order to obtain the advantage in fighting against Turkey requested the help of the Arabian people lived in the Turkish territory and the support of Arabian people was concluded in 1915,with Arabian leader, Husayn through Husayn-McMahon Agreement in which the Arabian people become independent from Turkey. When in the world war 1, Turkey tears, Palestine became the English mandate, between the Judean people and the Palestinian people, the riot and terrorism occurred. In 1937, England proposed Palestine divided into the country of the Judean people and the Arabian people, but the Arabian people denied. But during the World War II, persecution against the Judean people by the Nazis became severe and many Judean people moved to Palestine and lived. And, the necessity of establishment of Judean country was appealed worldwide since millions of Jewish people were killed by Nazis.
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the house of Ben-Gurion, the first prime minister

In 1945, worldwide Zionist meeting was held, and the demand for the construction Judean nation which mainly host one million the refugee was requested, in 1947, United Nations approved the divided plan which makes the independent nation of the Judean people and the Arabian nation of the Arabian people in the Palestine area. Because of this, May 14th of 1948 in the next year when the English mandate is terminated, David Ben-Gurion, who was the chief leader of Zionism movement for a long time, declared was inaugurated as first president. Against this inauguration, Arabian countries caused opposed conduct and they invaded Palestine. Here, the first Middle Eastern war broke out. In 1949, suspension of hostilities treaty was tied, but the Arabian countries did not admit the existence of the Israeli nation and in 1956, secondary Middle Eastern war (Suez war) occurred. After that, to 1967, third Middle Eastern war (6 days war) occurred, at this time, Israel, occupied Syrian Golan plateau and the West bank of Jordan River and Gaza area other than already occupied territory of Sinai peninsula. In 1973, 4th Middle Eastern war (Yom Kipul war) occurred. In 1976, the General Assembly of United Nations resolved the Palestinian national constructive plan, in spite of the oppositions of Israel and USA and England.


In Israel, because Israel occupied the west bank of Jordanian river and Gaza during the 6 days war of 1967, after 1987, the Palestinian people are conducting extremely resisting activities and terrorism continued in these areas. As the result of these resistant activities, 1993, Palestine succeeded to make provisional autonomy in the Israeli occupied territory, in change for admitting Israel as an independent nation. But, reaching up to presently, anti-Israeli movement such as the bomb terrorism in the middle of city has not stopped. In Israel, the time where settlement to the every place had been active, the collective farm of the Judean people, such as the establishment of kibbutz had been encouraged. As for the kibbutz, the people living together, with the corps which works, it was the corps which can protect the body even from the enemy by doing so. ../../p209.jpg(53385 byte)

the closed passage to the hill of the sanctuary



Peace Diary